Introduction into te offshore industry
The offshore industry is comprised of two main divisions, oil and gas production and wind power production.
The oil and gas industry is a dynamic and challenging global workplace, the industry provides a career with excellent opportunities across wide ranged disciplines all around the globe. The unique mix of nationalities and disciplines often in harsh environment ensure the need for clear global safety culture.
Offshore is a unique and hazardous working environment, where hazards have been identified, assessed and appropriately controlled. However planning for emergencies is still required and people need to be trained to know what to do in an emergency whether travelling to or working offshore. Offshore Oil and Gas Activities are Exploration, Drilling, Construction, Production, Utilities.
Oil and Gas Formation
About 300 to 400 million years ago, tiny sea plants and animals died and were buried on the ocean floor. Overtime, they were covered by layers of silt and sand. Over millions of years the remains were buried deeper and deeper, the enormous heat and pressure turned them into oil and gas (hydrocarbons).
Geologist and other scientists have developed techniques that indicate the possibility of oil or gas being found deep in the ground. These techniques include taking aerial photographs of special surface features sending shock waves through the earth and reflecting them back into instruments, and measuring the earth’s gravity and magnetic field with sensitive meters. Drilling Vessel is a method by which oil or gas can be found by drilling a hole into the reservoir. For a long time, most wells were drilled on land but after World War II drilling commenced in shallow water from platforms supported by legs that rested on the sea bottom. Later, floating platforms were developed that could drill at water depths of 1,000 m (3,300 ft.) or more. Large oil and gas fields have been found offshore; in the United States mainly off the Gulf Coast; in Europe primarily in the North Sea; in Russia, in the Barents Sea and Kara Sea; and off Newfoundland and Labrador.
As crude oil or natural gas is produced from an oil or gas field, the pressure in the reservoir that forces the material to the surface gradually declines. Eventually, the pressure will decline so much the remaining oil and gas will not migrate through the porous rock to the well. When this point is reached, most of the gas in the gas field will have been produced, but less than one third of the oil will have been extracted. Part of the remaining oil can be recovered by using water or carbon dioxide gas to push the oil to the well, but even then, one-fourth to one-half of the oil is usually left in the reservoir.
In an effort to extract this remaining oil, oil companies have begun to use chemicals to push the oil to the well, or to use fire or steam in the reservoir to make the oil flow more easily. New techniques allowing operators to drill horizontally, as well as vertically, into very deep structures have dramatically reduced the cost of accessing natural oil and gas supplies. Crude oil is transported to refineries by pipelines, barges or tankers. Natural gas is transported, usually by pipelines, to customers who will burn it for fuel or in some cases, make petrochemicals from chemical extracted or “stripped” from it. Natural gas can be liquefied at very low temperatures and transported in special ships.