Top 20 biggest oil spills ...part 2
11. Hawaiian Patriot
OnFebruary 23, 1977, the tanker Hawaiian Patriot (99,443 DWT) fully loaded with 99,000 tons lighter Indonesian crude oil en route from Indonesia to Honolulu reported a crack in the hull plating. At that time there was a storm of contribution to leakage of oil from cargo holds, about 300 miles west of Hawaii. About 18,000 tons of oil leaked into the sea, and the next day the tanker caught fire and exploded. It burned fiercely for several hours and sank with the rest of cargo on board. One crew member was killed. The resulting oil slicks, which contain about 50,000 tons of oil was dispersed west of Hawaii ocean currents and failed to lead to the contamination of land. The slick had been under surveillance.
Independentawas a carrier of crude oil under the Romanian flag, the largest ship of the Romanian commercial fleet at the time. The ship carrying 94,000 tons of crude oil in 1979 faced a Greek cargo ship Evriali in the south entrance of the Bosphorus, Turkey and exploded. Independenta and Evriali ignite. 43 crew members of the tanker died, only three survived the crash. Almost all the victims lost their lives in the water as the flames from the burning oil moves toward shore by the action of winds. Sailors who survived jumped to the other side of the ship into the wind and were later rescued by boats. Independenta burning wreckage of a week, causing severe air and sea pollution near Istanbul and the Marmara Sea.
13. Jakob Maersk
Jakob Maerskwas a Danish oil tanker hit shore of 29 January 1975 entering the port Leixoes, Portugal. The strike led to a large oil spill. Built in 1966, the tanker is owned by Maerskline Navigation Company. It has a length of 261.81 meters and a crew of 32 people. Jakob Maersk was loaded with 88.000 tons of crude oil, when they tried to enter the portof Leixoes, near Porto, Portugal. He collided with a sand bank, causing a huge explosion and subsequent fire that burned for days. The explosion split the ship on parts and caused the spill of crude oil into the water. Six crew members were killed. Local beaches were significantly affected. 15,000 tons of oil were washed by 32 kilometers of coastline, traces of hydrocarbons were found on the beach, 50 km from Jakob Maersk. The most affected parts of the beach are those adjacent to the ruins, where the cleaning began with removing the top layer of sand and the application of dispersants.
MV Braerwas an oil tanker stranded off the Shetland Islands, Scotland, in January 1993. On January 5, 1993, the Coast Guard was notified that the tanker, Braer, traveling the route from Bergen in Norway to Quebec in Canada charged 85,000 tons of Norwegian crude oil lost engine power but do not need immediate help. The position of the ship was 10 miles (19 kilometers) south of Sumburgh and wore mostly from the southwest wind with a force of 10 -11 knots. At the suggestion of the Coast Guard captain agreed that staff should be removed from the ship, all 34 crew members were put on a helicopter. The ship caught in a storm and ran aground on the rocks of the Quendale Bay, south end of Shetland, despite desperate efforts by rescuers to avoid the collision. The ship sank, leaving behind a huge spill. For more than half a decade, fishing activities were completely banned due to high levels of oil toxins.
15. Khark Five (Khark 5)
On19 December 1989, the Iranian oil tanker Khark 5 en route from Kharg Island to Rotterdam within the storm and suffered an explosion off the coast of Safi, 400 miles north of the Canary Islands. Four tanks were damaged, resulting in continuous casting of 70,000 tons of Iranian crude oil, 1/4 of the cargo ship. Leak lasts about 12 days and is estimated at 200 tons per hour. The explosion was followed by a fire that was quickly controlled. Then the ship was towed by a tug to be removed from the Moroccan coast. No country has cleared the ship approaches its coast as oil continued to flow into the sea. Moroccan government was not prepared to deal with accidental spillage of oil and received assistance from international experts.
16. Aegean Sea
Oil spill in theAegean Sea happened on Dec. 3, 1992, when the double-hull tanker Aegean Sea, the Greek flag on a route to Repsol refinery in A Coruña, Spain suffered an accident off the coast of Galicia. The ship was successfully passed all required tests and inspections. When the ship was ready to enter the docks of La Coruna, the wind speed was 50 knots (93 km / h; 58 mph), and the visibility below 100 m (110 yards), which caused the tanker to lose prescribed course. Aegean Sea crashed and exploded in flames 50 meters high near the Towerof Hercules, spilling more than 70,000 tons of oil into the ocean. The two anchors of the Aegean Sea have been restored and are now on display inAquariumFinisterrae La Coruna, and Philippe Cousteau museum in Salinas.
Oil spillfrom the tanker SeaEmpress happened at the entrance to Milford Haven waterway in Pembrokeshire, Waleson 15 February 1996. Sea Empress was on his way to the Texaco oil refinery near Pembroke, when he found himself in the middle of the channel, surrounded by rocks near Saint Anne Head. In the course of one week, the tanker spilled 72,000 tons of crude oil into the sea. Spill fell within the National Park Pembrokeshire Coast - one of the most important and sensitive wildlife areas of Europe, as well as marine areas for protection of the environment. It is the third largest oil spill in the UK and the twelfth largest in the world at that time. During the first week, the spill caused the deaths of thousands of people, seabirds were affected. The economy of the province also injured considering that tourism and fishing activities were banned for a considerable period of time.
18. Katina P
On17 April 1992, the master of the ship Katina P, who was a Greek-owned underthe Maltese flag, deliberately caused the ship to get stuck 40 km (25 miles) north of Maputo in Mozambique and then abandoned. Tanker was en route from Venezuelato the Gulf hull plate is lost during a storm. Two of the ship's tanks were ruptured and spilled about 13,000 tons oil in Mozambique Channel. Later, the ship sank. Moving south Agulhas spread over spilled oil in the Gulf of Maputo, Incomati estuary and Matola, in the mangrove swamps of Montanhana, beaches Catembe, Island Xefinas, and many more places with disastrous environmental and socio-economic consequences.
Oil spill off the coast of Galicia caused by e sinking of the oil tanker Prestige in 2002 spill polluted thousands of kilometers of coastline and more than one thousand beaches on the Spanish, French and Portuguese coast. Causing extensive damage to the local fishing industry. The spill is the largest environmental disaster in the history of Spain and Portugal. In the coming months, were organized with the help of thousands of volunteers in cleaning up the affected coastline. Massive campaign to clean and restore most of the coastline not only from the effects of the oil spill, but also the accumulated usual contamination was successful. One year after the spill, Galicia had more "blue flags" for its beaches (beaches prize for the highest standards in the European Union) than in previous years. Prestige was a Greek-operated, single-hull oil tanker, officially registered in the Bahamas. The ship had a carrying capacity of about 81,000 tons, measuring, making it the thin end of class Aframax tankers less than most carriers of crude oil, but larger than most carriers of refined products.
20. Exxon Valdez
One of theless famous sea disasters was an accident with Exxon Valdez, occurred in Bligh Reef in the waters of Alaska, in the late 1980s. According to official reports, the ship was carrying about 55 million gallons of oil, of which about 10.1 to 11 million gallons spilled in Glacier Prince William. Countless varieties of animal forms and marine flora and fauna have been destroyed by the effects of the disaster, though U.S.authorities have taken immediate measures for the cleaning. Even now, after more than 30 years since the oil spill accident, the consequences for the marine ecosystem is felt in the area and the surrounding geography, which was founded several researchers claim long-term effects on the ecosystem of Alaska.