Historical review of the IMO conventions
Statistical analysis suggests that about 80% of all accidents are caused by human error, in practice it turns out that every human action or inaction has an important role in almost every accident, including when the immediate causes are structural or equipment damage.
The sinking of the "Titanic" after colliding with an iceberg on April 14, 1912 is a catalyst for the adoption in 1914 of the first International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS).
More than 1,500 passengers and crew killed and disaster around the tragic incident raised so much fuss about the safety standards in force, the Government of the United Kingdom, a conference for the development of international rules. Conference, attended by representatives from 13 countries entered the international requirements dealing with safety of navigation for all merchant ships, providing waterproof and fire resistant partitions, life saving appliances and fire prevention and fire fighting equipment for vessels carrying passengers. Another requirement for ships carrying more than 50 people, is equipped with a device for sending radiograms.
Since then, the Convention has been amended in 1924, 1948, 1960 and 1974, namely the amendments adopted in 1960 and transpires subsequently amended in 1974 provide the kind of convention Taqwa as we know it today.
The increase of oil transported by sea has a major impact on shipping, disaster "Torrey Canyon" of 1967, in which 120,000 tons of oil leak into the environment, demonstrate the scale of the problem. Over the next few years IMO introduced a series of measures designed to prevent accidents of tankers and minimizing their consequences. Other environmental threats are sometimes caused by routine operations, such as cleaning tanks for liquid cargo and waste disposal in the engine room - sometimes a greater threat of accidental contamination. The most important of these measures is the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78). It covers not only accidental and operational oil pollution but also pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution.
International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, (STCW) was adopted in 1978 and standardized training of the crew of merchant ships, and came into force in 1984 . first appeared uniform and uniform criterion measure of training and certification of professional sailors to date this task was entrusted entirely to maritime administrations of individual countries.